Chlamydia trachomatis is a common causative agent of the infection of urogenital organs in both sexes, most often causing urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. Chlamydia is transmitted sexually and it is the causative agent of almost half of urethritis conditions leading to sterility.
Chlamydia lives inside the cells of the genital mucosa and by its characteristics, it is classified between bacteria and viruses. The immune response of our organism to the presence of chlamydia can be very weak.
That is why the infection symptoms are mild and often asymptomatic, in the form of increased transparent odorless discharge from the urethra or vagina.
In women, chlamydia infection also gives mild and discreet symptoms, spotting between periods or after intercourse. Only 10% of patients feel pain in the small pelvis.
Since chlamydia infection remains undiagnosed and untreated for a long time, it can lead to chronic inflammation of the small pelvis. Chlamydia is the most common causative agent of sterility in women or of ectopic pregnancy.
To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to do deep urethral swab tests in men, and cervix swab tests in women.
The initial infection is easily treated with antibiotics, and most often a combination of two antibiotics is prescribed for 2 weeks. It is necessary for both partners to undergo a therapy, and the intercourse should be avoided during that period.
Urethritis and cervicitis caused by chlamydia
This urethritis is most often caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D and E. Genital infections caused by chlamydia are the most common sexually transmitted diseases of today. They are transmitted during sexual intercourse, but perinatal transmission is also possible.
The incubation period lasts between 1 and 3 weeks from the moment of the infection until the symptoms start showing. The most common symptoms include difficulty when urinating, itching, burning, redness at the urethral opening with a mucous transparent discharge in the morning before urination.
The clinical picture can be very mild and imperceptible. In women, the cervix is most often affected by infection, from where the infection can spread upwards, leading to inflammation of the fallopian tubes and secondary sterility.
Diagnosis is made by laboratory isolation of Chlamydia trahomatis. Both partners are treated with prescribed antibiotic therapy.
Urethritis and cervicitis caused by mycoplasmas
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum can also cause urethritis.
The incubation period usually lasts about 10 days, but sometimes it can last up to a month and a half.
These infections have symptoms similar to chlamydia-induced urethritis, but symptoms of cervicitis, inflammation of the small pelvis and prostate are also possible. They are related to infertility, Reiter’s syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.
The development of immunity in these infections is not sufficiently clarified, so they can also be found in some healthy people.
Treatment is carried out if there are symptoms, with appropriate antibiotic therapy.