Causative agents, prevention and treatments

Wrinkles are larger or smaller lines or creases on the surface of the skin that appear over time on the skin exposed to the sun. They appear on the face, neck, chest and hands.

After the age of 25, the amount of collagen and elastin in the skin decreases, making it prone to cracking and folding. Wrinkles can initially be observed only during certain movements of the face or neck, and over time they make permanent traces.

What causes the appearance of wrinkles?

The first and the most important causative agent of wrinkles is UVA and UVB radiation of the solar spectrum, as well as tanning boot rays. UV rays tear collagen and elastic fibers in the skin, and they have a cumulative effect.

The second is a genetic predisposition. In some families, the skin is more folded, which is often a consequence and stronger mimic. More expressive mimic cuts the skin intensively and, over time, leaves traces on it. This is one of the reasons that actors very often have very deep wrinkles.

The skin phototype also contributes to the quality of the skin. Thus, a person of light complexion and light eyes will have skin more prone to wrinkles.

The intake of sugar leads to the release of free radicals in the body. Excess blood sugar binds to collagen proteins in the skin directly damaging it. This process is significantly exacerbated by additional sun exposure of the skin.

Fast and fried foods behave like sweets in the blood.

Smoking that leads to dehydration and release of free radicals, is a great enemy of the skin. Long-time smokers have deep and conspicuous wrinkles, and the skin of the face is dry and finely folded.

Insomnia is, also, a great enemy of the skin. Insufficient sleep increases the level of cortisol, a stress hormone, which makes the skin thinner.

How to prevent wrinkles?

Our skin is often a mirror of our lifestyle. That is why it is important to eat moderately, without extra sugar, stop smoking, have enough sleep, sleep on the back to prevent the face from folding, minimally expose oneself to the sun and use UVA and UVB protective factor daily.

Make sure to take antioxidants and enough fluids.

Daily care with moisturising creams and non-aggressive cleansing of the face are also recommended. Daily skin care should contain some of the following substances: Retin-A, alpha hydroxy acid, vitamin C, idebenone (coenzyme Q10), pentapeptides.

There are procedures that can significantly delay the appearance of the first wrinkles, reduce and, over time, even remove the existing ones.

1. PRP or the vampire facial is characterised by the release of growth factors that can repair the skin through collagen stimulation.

2. Mesotherapy or biostimulation with dermapen — numerous injections of the active substance stimulate natural self-regeneration of the skin.

3. Chemical peels — by removing the top dead layer of the skin and by making a controlled chemical burn, they trigger a cascade of reactions with a build-up of growth factors and stimulation of new tissue growth.

4. Lasers — especially fractional CO2 laser as the largest stimulator, and also non-ablative lasers, perform a controlled burn and thus create new tissue. Ablation lasers like fractional CO2 laser penetrate the skin to its full depth making the strongest stimulation. This type of laser requires one treatment per year to preserve and rejuvenate the skin. Non-ablative lasers act more at the level of neovascularization, so this type of laser requires at least three treatments a year.

5. Botox— the number one treatment for wrinkles on the forehead and around the eyes. It reduces muscle contraction, and, hence, the depth of daily folding of the skin. Recent studies have shown that botox is also a collagen stimulator and an antidepressant.

6. Hyaluronic fillers — not only are they capable of lifting the face, but they most intensively moisturize the skin and stimulate the formation of 20% of new collagen over a year.

7. Radio wave skin lifting stimulates collagen production by applying temperature from 45 to 55 degrees Celsius. This procedure does not require any recovery and does not have any side effects.

Modern society has promoted facial and neck care to the part of daily hygiene. Even if one made a mistake in youth by inadequate skin treatments, especially excessive tanning, modern technology makes it possible to regenerate the skin even up to 15 years back in time.

Svetlana Đurišić specijalista dermatovenerologije

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